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Muslim Advocates, a San Francisco company developing a number of blood-based diagnostics for such diseases,85 against the dollar in early trade today on increased selling of the greenback by exporters and banks. in 2011 six stores were open in the 4000-person town "It was dying" says Lee Thomas deputy commissioner of the Georgia film office Thats exactly what AMC wanted In fact the creators of the hit zombie show wanted Senoia to look completely deadno cars on the streets lights turned off lawns left unmowed But by killing the town The Walking Dead brought it back to life The production team hired hundreds of crew members from the area It put up the cast in local hotels It hired local vendors to serve food supply lumber and build the sets By the end of the third season all 50 storefronts on Senoias main street were occupied An entire economy sprang up around Walking Dead tourism including the Waking Dead Café; a restaurant opened by Norman Reedus one of the shows stars; and tours led by guides in zombie makeup The crew adjusts a lighting balloon on the set of Emperor in Springfield Ga RaMell Ross for TIME While Hollywood remains the heart of the film industry Georgia has staked a claim as its Southern campus In 2016 more major feature films were made in Georgia than in California according to data from the Los Angeles film office Movies filmed in the area have dominated the box office in 2018 thanks to Marvel Studios recent migration to the Peach State: parts of Black Panther Avengers: Infinity War and Ant-Man and the Wasp were all shot in Atlanta Georgia has been working to attract Hollywood since 2008 when then governor Sonny Perdue signed a generous tax incentive for film productions Thomas says officials lobbied for the measure after the state lost the production of Ray the biopic about Georgia native Ray Charles that won Jamie Foxx an Oscar to Louisiana Georgia now offers a 20% incentive on productions of $500000 or more plus an additional 10% if the film adds a peach logo to its credits The incentives are similar to those in states like New York and Louisiana but in Georgia unlike those states the law has no end date Actor Issa Rae in between takes on the set of Universal Pictures’ Little on location in Atlanta Thirteen-year-old black-ish star Marsai Martin came up with the idea for the film about a woman who gets to relive her youth RaMell Ross for TIME In 2007 the film industry spent $93 million on productions in Georgia In 2016 it spent over $2 billion In the past decade the tax perk has attracted the Hunger Games franchise the Fast and Furious movies and superproducer Tyler Perry who has made the state his base Television hits like Stranger Things critical darlings like Atlanta and reality series like The Real Housewives of Atlanta have all set up shop in the capital often for years at a time Georgias government estimates that in 2016 alone the film industry gave the state a $7 billion economic boost through job creation and tourism Los angeles has the beach New York City is a concrete jungle But Atlanta can be Everytowneven a fictional 1980s Indiana suburb Stranger Things creators Matt and Ross Duffer originally wanted to set their eerie show on coastal Long Island in honor of Jaws but rewrote their script after visiting Georgia "We lost our beach and lighthouse but we gained this American heartland aesthetic which now defines the show" the brothers told TIME "We needed suburban neighborhoods that look unchanged since the 80sAtlanta had them We needed urban streets and skyscrapers for a Chicago set pieceAtlanta had those We needed a quarry with a steep cliffAtlanta had it less than 10 miles from our soundstages" Theyre not the only creators who rewrote a script to fit the setting: Edgar Wright revised his 2017 hit Baby Driver to highlight Atlanta restaurant Bacchanalia coffee shop Octane and famed music store Criminal Records A cluster of lighting stands on the set of comedy Little by Universal Pictures’ overlook the Atlanta skyline from the Terminus building RaMell Ross for TIME Issa Rae looks over her script on the set of Universal Pictures’ Little Marsai Martin is executive-producing with Will Packer who has grossed some $500 million at the box office with other Georgia-based films like Ride Along No Good Deed and Stomp the Yard RaMell Ross for TIME It takes more than tax incentives to lure productions "Its not enough to just get us here" says Walking Dead producer Tom Luse a Georgia native who began his career as a production manager on the Georgia-based film Glory "The mayor [of Senoia] and state are eager to help allowing us to shut down bridges and streets and take over towns" Detractors say the jobs created by productions are low-paying and could disappear if another state offers a better deal Some worry about the industrys political influence: in 2016 Georgia Governor Nathan Deal vetoed a "religious liberty" bill that was opposed by Hollywood studios as well as other corporations Still the state has invested in the industrys long-term growth In 2015 it created the Georgia Film Academy which offers training to aspiring crew members and funnels its graduates directly into local productions Studios are putting down roots Pinewood host to many Marvel films has built a massive Georgia campus in Fayette County that includes 18 soundstages on 700 acres plus its own Home Depot The 230-acre 1300–residence Pinewood Forest is set to open across the street beginning next year Its the sort of place that just might attract more superheroes Several television series and movies are currently filming at Tyler Perry Studios in Atlanta set on a former Army base RaMell Ross for TIME A view of "Maxineville" named in memory of Tyler Perry’s mother Maxine is part of an extensive backlot at Tyler Perry Studios parts of which are still under construction The studio will be fully complete in 2019 Situated on 330 acres of historic property on the decommissioned Fort McPherson Army base RaMell Ross for TIME The backlots at Pinewood Atlanta Studios which opened in February 2014 and hosts projects for film television music and video games The complex holds 18 sound stages on 700 acres in Fayetteville Ga RaMell Ross for TIME A horse corral set on season 9 of AMC’s The Walking Dead filmed in in Senoia Ga RaMell Ross for TIME Preparing a set behind the scenes of the upcoming children’s television show ‘Moon and Me’ at Pinewood Atlanta Studios RaMell Ross for TIME Teletubbies co-creator Andrew Davenport behind the scenes on his new project ‘Moon and Me’ which will premiere later this year Photographed on location at Pinewood Atlanta Studios RaMell Ross for TIME NeNe Leakes Porsha Williams Cynthia Bailey and Kandi Burruss film Season 11 of’The Real Housewives of Atlanta’ the most popular entry in the Bravo franchise RaMell Ross for TIME Shows like Netflix’s Stranger Things have become pop-culture phenomena and the shows creators credit Georgia with adding to its "American heartland aesthetic” Vintage cars from the 80s line the set of season 3 of ‘Stranger Things’ RaMell Ross for TIME The crew prepares to film a scene on the set of Netflix’s ‘Stranger Things’ season 3 on location in Georgia RaMell Ross for TIME Lights and cameras on the set of Netflix’s ‘Stranger Things’ season 3 filmed on location in Georgia RaMell Ross for TIME An equipment trailer on the set of ‘Stranger Things’ in Georgia RaMell Ross for TIME Inside the hair and makeup trailer on the set of ‘Stranger Things’ in Georgia RaMell Ross for TIME RaMell Ross is an artist filmmaker and writer based in RI and AL This story is part of TIMEs August 6 special issue on the American South Discover more from the issue here Correction July 26 The original version of this story misidentified one subject of the primary image above He is Brad Carter not Ben Robson Write to Eliana Dockterman at [email protected] in Atomic Blonde Charlize Theron slowly stands up from an ice bath Her back emerges sinewy and covered in myriad dark purple bruises When she looks in the mirror a badly blackened eye stares back This is not a woman to be crossed Theron plays Lorraine Broughton an MI6 agent sent on a treacherous mission to Berlin in 1989 five days before the Wall falls The movie is a neon spree through underground parties and glittering speakeasies backed by thumping 80s pop music Lorraine based on a character from the graphic novel The Coldest City isnt like most female heroes: shes not a grieving widow shes not a protective mother and she definitely doesnt have daddy issues "Writers are always giving women dead husbands or kids to make you emotionally invest" says Theron over tea at the Chateau Marmont in Los Angeles this June The 41-year-old actor is still wearing athletic gear from a workout with her trainer for the movie though filming has long wrapped "Men go on a fun journey Women get a long backstory so youre already forgiving them for what theyre about to do" MORE: Review: Atomic Blonde Kicks You Where It Hurts Not Lorraine She does everything the men always haveexchanging blows and bulletsexcept backward and in heels Until she slips off one of those heels and wields it as a weapon This isnt Therons first time playing an unapologetic brawler The Oscar winner has been a prostitute turned serial killer a failing and bitter author Snow Whites black-hearted tormentor and a one-armed road warrior "I play effed-up vulnerable women who have to be strong in order to survive" says Theron Atomic Blonde out July 28 comes at a turning point for women-led action films In June Wonder Woman shattered outdated notions that audiences dont want to watch women kick butt Its currently the highest-grossing movie of the summer bringing in $389 million in the US People want to see female action heroes The question that matters now is how quickly Hollywood will allow them to go dark After all male action heroes have run the gamut from basically good (Indiana Jones) to explicitly bad (Dirty Harry) for decades Wonder Woman is the former a near perfect goddess who strives to always do whats morally right Therons Lorraine is anything but (Story continues below) Charlize Theron photographed at the Universal Lot in Los Angeles on June 8 2017 Amanda Demme for TIME Theron grew up on a farm in South Africa Her father struggled with alcohol and was abusive When Theron was 15 her mother Gerta shot and killed him in self-defense But Therons mother taught her not to wallow in self-pity "Im not the first person and wont be the last person to go through something traumatic" she explained on her friend Aisha Tylers podcast Girl on Guy last year By the time she was 17 Theron had moved to America to study at the Joffrey Ballet School in New York When a series of injuries left her unable to dance she began to pursue acting Casting directors pegged her for the ingenue: her character in Woody Allens 1998 Celebrity was actually named "Supermodel" Therons big break came in 2003 after Patty Jenkins who also directed Wonder Woman cast her in Monster as a prostitute who avenges her rape by murdering her clients Theron won an Oscar for the role the characters toughness mirroring her own "Shes a real-life badass" says Jenkins "And she can do whatever she wants on film" Adds Keanu Reeves who co-starred with her in The Devils Advocate (1997) and was her sparring partner as she prepared for Atomic Blonde "She brings brutal grace to her characters" Still her first major foray into the action genre 2005s Aeon Flux was a flop Hollywood took that films failurealong with Catwoman and Elektra which also bombed around the same timeas a sign women couldnt headline a profitable action flick "We get screwed because one movie doesnt work" says Theron "I experienced that with Aeon Flux" She admits the film was flawed but then "It was like Your chance is up" A decade later Theron starred in Mad Max: Fury Road part of a wave of filmsincluding the Hunger Games series and Star Wars: The Force Awakensthat definitively proved the opposite That movie was marketed as a testosterone-fueled car chase across a post-apocalyptic wasteland But anyone who saw it quickly realized the story actually belongs to Furiosa the one-armed rebel Theron played to stoic perfection Sure Max (Tom Hardy) was in the car but it was Furiosas mission to smuggle a group of sex slaves to an all-female paradise that captured audiences and turned the film into a $378 million box-office smash "It took me years to find the skin that I would be comfortable in to play this woman" she says "I had such a sense of relief when we realized she needed to be in a T-shirt not a Barbarella outfit and I needed to shave my head" Focus Features Atomic Blonde is brutal Lorraine is lethal crafting weapons out of well everything A corkscrew becomes a shiv A backpack becomes a cudgel A hot plate becomes a hammer And in a nod to a classic technique taught in womens self-defense classes keys become brass knuckles Her foes are just as savage The films violence will make some viewers uncomfortable In one sequence that only lasts about 20 minutes but feels like an hour Lorraine is thrown down a flight of stairs shot at stabbed and repeatedly punched Much of it is shot in a single excruciating take that leaves Therons character and one of her assailants gasping for breath and struggling to stand upright Its a technical marvel Its also a marvel if you can watch it without cringing Director David Leitch got the job by championing this blunt approach It had worked for him on 2014s John Wick starring Reeves as a vengeful assassin Leitchs wife Kelly McCormick (one of Atomic Blondes producers) encouraged him to do the same with Theron whose production company optioned the Cold War story some seven years ago Most directors are reluctant to show women with black eyes let alone being hit So they pit female heroes against female villains or pretend petite women can flip 200-lb men or simply cut away during fight scenes Leitch argued there was no reason to "make allowances for the fact that shes a woman" Adds Leitch "For me its more compelling to be with her while shes suffering" Theron agreed "Its a disservice to women Part of it is male filmmakers not being comfortable with putting a woman in that position" she says "If a female spy is sent into the field why wouldnt she experience the same sh-t as a male spy" Before filming began Theron spent four hours a day training at the gym Leitch founded with his John Wick co-director Chad Stahelski They concentrated on realistic moves a woman could actually use against a 6 ft 4 in opponent "Theres a lot of roundhouse low leg kicks and throat chops and elbow strikes" the director says "Elbows and knees are really big for generating power and leverage for a smaller attacker" Thats not to say Atomic Blonde doesnt indulge in some fantasy Lorraines garter belts tight sweaters and white pleather coat that the actor likens to "a shiny condom" were inspired by the work of German photographer Helmut Newton The films vision of a crumbling East Berlin still manages to be glamorous with its cast of sexy unhinged spies including James McAvoy as another British agent who has "gone native" He struts around Berlin to the tune of "99 Luftballons" and "Blue Monday" in a fur coat and stunner shades And then theres the scene in which Lorraine seduces a fellow female spy (Sofia Boutella) originally a man in the graphic novel Its Bond-like: theres no falling in love just falling into bed "Some reviewers said The sex scene is too aggressive I dont want to be crass but its not a lovemaking scene Its two people getting it on" says Theron "When we say we need to own our sexuality that means everything about our sexuality It made me realize we have to push even harder to overturn old ideas of what women should act like in these movies" Mad Max: Fury Road Warner Bros Pictures We used to get about one female action hero per year If we were lucky we got one icon per decade: Ellen Ripley in Alien Sarah Connor in Terminator the Bride in Kill Bill Sigourney Weaver who arguably brought the first female action hero to life in Ripleya part by the way originally written for a mansays that roles for women have improved greatly "There isnt that thing that used to drive me crazy whenever I read the part: those scenes where the woman stops being effective and has a little breakdown to show you shes still a female entity" she says "Now they just get on with it" After all theres no one way to be a hero Because Lorraine isnt Wonder Woman who isnt Sarah Connor who isnt Ripley "Im trying to break these forms of how women ought to behave in movies" Theron says "Maybe they shouldnt behave at all" This appears in the August 7 2017 issue of TIME Write to Eliana Dockterman at [email protected] years ago when the Spice Girls released their debut single the anthem “Wannabe”which was dropped in the UK on July 8 1996it quickly became clear that they had something that listeners “really really want” The song soared to the top of the charts in 31 countries and was at one point considered the best-selling debut single of all-time according to Billboard But they didn’t just make a splash in the world of pop music They were also arguably the most recognizable face of an important moment in the history of the UK: the mid-’90s celebration of youth culture that’s sometimes known as “Cool Britannia” and an attendant shift in the UK politics From Charles Saatchi’s patronage of the “Young British Artists” to Britpop bands Blur and Oasisand even an eponymous Ben & Jerry’s ice cream flavoranything English was hip (Case in point: Geri Halliwell’s Union Jack minidress) As Newsweek put it in 1996 London “the coolest city on the planet” was “back” By 1997 the year of “Spice Up Your Life” Tony Blair and other proponents of “New Labour” sought to “spice up” Britain’s image after nearly two decades of Conservative Party rule by linking the Labour Party to the pop culture trend As Rolling Stone reported Blair had said that the Spice Girls’ “Say You’ll Be There” was one of his favorite records of 1996 and could name more members of the group than Conservative rival John Major After a poll rated Blair Britain’s most popular leader since World War II a 1998 TIME feature reported that his effort to associate himself with modern British icons like the Spice Girls was part of his mission to “modernize” the nation and its politics: The British economy is booming: the pound is up and unemployment is down Peace and prosperity Who could ask for anything more But just in case someone does there’s Britain’s current boom in the arts Whether it’s movies like the The Full Monty bands like Oasis and the Spice Girls or designers like Stella McCartney the hottest thing going these days seems to come from what is cloyingly known as “Cool Britannia” And while Blair admits that this artistic blossoming was under way before he took office he and his coterie of young advisers have relentlessly even shamelessly courted and promoted the hip as a way of announcing to the world that Britain is changing Other TIME magazine articles characterized the effort as “Tony Blair’s late-’90s attempt to sex up the UK’s image” and reported that “he has set himself the visionary target of ‘rebranding’ Britain Instead of enjoying this country of nice old things he wants to create a new ‘cool Britannia’” Get your history fix in one place: sign up for the weekly TIME History newsletter Wordsmiths of the 1990s however weren’t the ones to invent the term “Cool Britannia” In fact a psychedelic pop group called the Bonzo Dog Band had made the same play on “Rule Britannia” on their 1967 album Gorilla Some sociologists and experts in media and cultural studies argued that the renewed popularity of the phrase in the mid-1990s was appropriate After all that 1990s moment was in some ways a throwback to ’60s-era giddiness over another cultural boom in London which had coincided with the election of another Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson “This spring as never before in modern times London is switched on” TIME had declared in an April 15 1966 cover story about Swinging London “Ancient elegance and new opulence are all tangled up in a dazzling blur of op and pop The city is alive with birds (girls) and Beatles…the Rolling Stones whose music is most in right now reign as a new breed of royalty…In a once sedate world of faded splendor everything new uninhibited and kinky is blooming at the top of London life” But the idea of “Cool Britannia” as soft power had its skeptics “There is a particular danger in putting ‘creative’ industries and youth culture at the centre of a government-sponsored effort to change Britain’s image” a March 12 1998 Economist article argued “These are things that depend on fashion and spontaneity But few things are less fashionable or spontaneous than a grinning politician in a suit” Some say the optimism of “Cool Britannia” has since wanedand now more than ever it’s clear that British politics are bigger than any girl group Yet the buzz about a possible Spice Girls reunion tour and rumors about a reunion documentary show that at least that aspect of “Cool Britannia” won’t fall out of style anytime soon Write to Olivia B Waxman at [email protected] In todays digital world, Now the trio has created a model to examine in more detail how a cap-and-trade market might impact whale populations and how the costs and benefits would change for people who want to hunt or conserve them The model combines whale population dynamics with an economic model of demand for whales and shows what happens to prices and populations when whalers and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) exchange shares They examined the dynamics for three kinds of whales: minkes bowheads and gray whales North Atlantic minke whales number about 72000 and 550 are caught annually including for subsistence as well as for scientific whaling The model predicts that conservationists wouldn’t have any incentive to buy shares of minke whales until hunters deplete the population to a level of concern which could take 10 years But with bowheads which are slowly recovering from intense whaling in the 19th century conservations groups would be highly motivated to buy all the shares for 13 years until the population grows to the carrying capacity And they would purchase shares in gray whales for 30 years With all three species prices converged on $10000 a share The total cost to buy all the whale shares of all three species over 20 years would run about $114 million the researchers calculate Considered on an annual basis that’s a fraction of what NGOs spend now on whale campaigns So even at that price conservationists could save more whales for less money than they do now the authors conclude And whalers would benefit when they sell shares because they make money without having to get their feet wet “[A] well-designed whale conservation market simultaneously enhances conservation welfare and whaler welfare relative to the status quo" Gerber and colleagues write "In some sense this is unsurprising: Allowing voluntary trade rather than forbidding it tends to make both parties in an economic transaction better off” Palumbi however says he doesn’t put too much stock in these numbers "The paper is almost certainly wrong in detail about whales and whaling" he says "It misses many of the messy realities of modern whaling such as the huge subsidy that Japan gives its whalers" The main advance he says is creating a framework for calculating the values of competing uses? when the rate of membership was 20.A Beijing film festival has dropped acclaimed gay romance Call Me By Your Name from its official program.