Jennifer Ellison-Brown: The best training methods

first_img FARTLEK TRAINING The name Fartlek comes from Swedish meaning ‘speed play’. It involves ‘run as you please’, alternating fast and slow effort over varied terrain such as grass, sand, flat, hills, etc. Fartlek training doesn’t precisely control the work and rest periods. This is very good for game players since games have many changes in speed. The mix of fast and slow work can be changed to suit the sport and energy system. It is used to improve aerobic and anaerobic fitness, depending on how the training is done. CIRCUIT TRAINING This involves a number of different exercises at work stations, which affects the different components of fitness. A circuit usually involves six to10 exercises or activities that take place at the stations. Circuits should be designed to avoid working the same muscle groups at stations that follow one another. The number of work stations, repetition, and the rest periods should add up to 15-20 minutes for one complete circuit. Repeat three to six times, depending on their length. Circuits can be designed for a particular sport. For example, a skill circuit can be constructed for games players wherein exercises can be replaced by short skill practices. CONTINUOUS TRAINING This involves the aerobic system and improves endurance. The aerobic system includes the heart, lungs, and vascular system. Activities such as brisk walking, jogging, running, dancing, cycling, swimming, and rowing are ideal examples of aerobic training. The oxygen demand must be matched by oxygen intake. Continuous means you do not stop to rest. It is submaximal, meaning you do not work flat out. This type of training should last for at least 12 minutes in order to achieve adaptations. The intensity of training can be judged from the heart (pulse) rate. Therefore, if you train within certain target heart rate training zones during aerobic exercise, the most efficient gains in aerobic fitness will be achieved without starting to work anaerobically and developing an oxygen debt. This is dependent on age, gender, and resting heart rate of the individual. The target heart training rate zone is worked out by subtracting your age from 220 and then aiming to keep your heart rate between 60% and 85% of this maximum figure. For example, for a person of 45 years who wants to exercise for 20 minutes, three times per week: Max Heart Rate = 220 – 45 = 175 60% of 175 = 105 85% of 175= 150 approximately. Therefore, the person should aim for a target heart rate of 105-150 beats per minute during exercise. There are a wide variety of training methods based on the ways in which the body adapts to regular exercise. All the methods can be adapted to suit particular training programmes.center_img INTERVAL TRAINING This involves exercising at a certain rate (work interval) for a certain time then resting for a certain period (rest interval) in order to recover and then repeating the process. Sessions of interval training can be organised into sets with longer rest intervals between sets. For example, running 200 metres in sets of six with a one-minute jog round between each one then resting for a longer period of 10 minutes before repeating the whole process another two times. Both the aerobic and anaerobic systems can be improved using this method. The length of the rest-recovery period depends on how hard you exercise (intensity) during the work interval. STRENGTH TRAINING This is used to develop strength, power, muscular endurance, and speed. Methods used include weights and plyometrics. Weight training Using weights as a form of resistance training, ( either free weights or weights in machines). Any weight-training programme can take account of your current state of fitness – the amount of weight, the number of repetitions, and the recovery periods can all be adjusted to progressively load muscles. Training for strength involves high resistance (weights) and few repetitions. Training for muscular endurance involves low resistance and many repetitions. Plyometrics This is a series of explosive movements designed to improve muscular power (explosive strength). This involves rebound jumping (on to and off boxes), bounding, leaps, and skips, press-ups with claps, hopping, throwing, and catching a medicine ball. Exercises that involve the contraction of muscles from a stretch position are known as plyometric. Plyometric training puts great stress on the muscles and joints and should only be attempted as part of an organised training programme.last_img read more

Read More →

Religious divide at heart of bitter Celtic-Rangers rivalry

first_img0Shares0000Celtic and Rangers are the dominant forces in the Scottish Premiership © AFP/File / GRAHAM STUARTGLASGOW, United Kingdom, May 21 – Celtic and Rangers have exerted a vice-like grip on Scottish football for a century but their bitter rivalry is underpinned by sectarian tensions that predate the existence of either Glasgow club.The ferocious passion generated when the teams clash in the Old Firm derby makes global headlines but behind it is a hatred whose roots can be found in Scotland’s history of religion and immigration. The Scottish reformation movement of the 16th century saw the previously pious Catholic nation of Scotland adopting Protestantism as its national religion.Religious hostilities existed for the next 300 years. Tensions were further stoked by an influx of both Catholic and Protestant immigrants from the north of Ireland during the 19th and early 20th century.Duncan Morrow, a lecturer in politics at the University of Ulster, was asked by the Scottish government in 2011 to chair the independent Advisory Group on Tackling Sectarianism in Scotland.Celtic have won seven Scottish Premiership titles in a row © AFP/File / ANDY BUCHANAN“Irish immigration to the industries of central Scotland brought with it sectarian rivalries and stirred a cultural anti-Catholicism, and even anti-Protestantism, that infected the workplace, local politics and the shape of social life for generations,” he told AFP.“Rivalries develop between football clubs everywhere but the big difference in Glasgow was the clubs associated with this sectarian rivalry.”Celtic were founded in 1887 by a Marist (Catholic) Brother from Ireland and the club’s origins were firmly embedded in Irish Catholicism.Rangers, founded in 1872, became the team of the Scottish Protestant working class almost by accident.At first, relations between the two clubs were cordial, with Rangers supplying the opposition for their neighbours’ first game.– No Catholics –However, the opening of a huge shipyard in Govan, just a short walk from Rangers’ Ibrox home, by industrial firm Harland and Wolff, saw an influx of workers from Belfast in the 1910s. The company’s infamous “Catholics need not apply” policy soon spread to the club their workforce adopted.The clubs’ identities were shaped in direct opposition to each other, with Celtic associated with socialism and Irish Republicanism, Rangers with conservatism and Northern Irish unionism.Rangers supporters wave Union Jack flags at Ibrox © AFP/File / Ian MacNicol, Ian MacNicolThis was reflected in the songs the clubs’ supporters adopted, which have tended to use the political events being played out in Northern Ireland as their inspiration.The signing of former Celtic player Mo Johnston in 1989 brought Rangers’ boycott of Catholic players to an end.For a time it seemed as if the religious-inspired rancour was being pushed to the margins in their rivalry in a more secular society.But the rise of social media, opposing views over the Scottish independence referendum and Rangers’ 2012 liquidation have led to heightened tensions in recent years.“In a time where religion is less important in society it is almost as if it has become part of the identity of football in Scotland,” said Morrow. “In a sense, sectarianism now is a way of behaving rather than a way of believing.”Morrow added there is evidence that violence spikes when sectarian rituals are played out in the street or at stadiums.Former Celtic manager Neil Lennon was subjected to sectarian abuse © AFP/File / LLUIS GENE“If you speak to young people, if you look at social media and visit some places in central Scotland then you can see that sectarianism is still there in communities,” he said.It is an issue that former Celtic manager and player Neil Lennon can relate to after enduring sectarian abuse during his career in Scotland.In 2002, a year after signing for the Hoops, Lennon, a Catholic, stopped playing international football for Northern Ireland, where the majority of the population are Protestants, following a death threat.In 2011, while manager of the Parkhead club, he was sent parcel bombs and bullets in the post and when he quit in 2014 he said he had become worn down by the abuse.But speaking after the Old Firm fixture at Ibrox in March, where sectarian singing was heard and fans clashed in Glasgow city centre, Lennon said he believes the situation is improving.“In my opinion it has got better but maybe that’s because I’m out of the Glasgow goldfish bowl,” the current Hibernian manager said.“There is no place for sectarianism any more. Some people use football as a vehicle to vent their frustrations or beliefs. But not many people want to listen to it any more.”0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)last_img read more

Read More →

Picture Special: Defibrillator Awareness Programme launched in Buncrana

first_imgThe Buncrana branch of the Irish Red Cross launched a Defibrillator Location And Awareness Programme In The Buncrana Area. The event took place in the Sliabh Sneacht Centre, Drumfries.A defibrillator is a life-saving device which delivers a therapeutic dose of electrical currents to the heart in order to revive the patient.The Buncrana branch of the Irish Red Cross would like to extend a huge thank you to all who made this night so successful, and to the community of Buncrana who turned out to support the event. A special thanks goes out all Irish Red Cross who worked hard for many weeks behind the scenes to organize for the launch night, and to all the staff in the Sliabh Sneacht centre. They also thank Swilly Print for their great work.Here are some snaps from the event:On behalf of the people in the Buncrana community, they would like to thank all the businesses who have made their life saving machines available in case of an emergency.The Irish Red Cross would like people in the community to be aware that in case of an emergency, a defibrillator is available in the following locations in the Buncrana area;>Ardaravan Clinic>Fire Station Buncrana>Buncrana Youth Club>North West Golf Club>Buncrana Connunity Hospital>Scoil Mhuire>Buncrana Medical Centre>Buncrana Golf Club>Crana Collage>Maginn Football Club>Inishowen Gateway Hotel>Cockhill Celtic Football Club>SuperValu Buncrana>Buncrana GAA Club>Inishowen Engineering>Dunree Football Club To keep up to date with the Buncrana branch of the Irish Red Cross you can visit their Facebook page.Picture Special: Defibrillator Awareness Programme launched in Buncrana was last modified: August 10th, 2016 by Elaine McCalligShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:buncranadefibrillatorirish red crosssliabh sneachtlast_img read more

Read More →